Jul 15 2007
Anti-Terrorism Law, Pinaboran At Binatikos Sa Zamboanga!
ZAMBOANGA CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 15 Jul) Mistulang ordinaryong araw ang nagdaan kahapon sa karamihan ng mga tao sa Zamboanga City – ito’y sa kabila ng alinlangan ng mga militantanteng grupo at ng Simpbahan sa implementasyon ng Human Security Act of 2007 o ang Anti-Terrorism Law.
«Wala naman problema ang Anti-Terrorism Law at maganda nga iyan dahil may batas na tayo na siyang tutugon sa problema ng Abu Sayyaf,” ani Joseph Atilano, isang negosyante sa Zamboanga City.
Kahapon nagsimula ang implementasyon ng HAS at walang nakitang mga rally o protesta ditto ukol sa nasabing batas.
Ngunit mangilan-ngilan rin, karamihan ay mga estudyante sa unibersidead, ang nagsabign dapat pagtibayin muna ng pulisya at military ang kanmpanya nito sa terorismo at hindi ang HAS ang siyang gawin pananggalang sa karahasan dulot ng Abu Sayyaf at iba pang mga grupo tulad ng Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Jemaah Islamiya at New People’s Army.
“Gagamitin lamang ni (Pangulong) Gloria (Arroyo) ang HAS upang targetin ang mga militatenteng grupo at ang oposisyon at maging mga tulad naming estudyante na bokal sa aming pagpapahayag ng damdamin ay tiyak mamimiligro.
Dapat ay amyendahan ang batas kontra krimen at hindi HSA ang sagot sa terorismo,” wika ni Arnold Santos, nagpakilalang student leader ng Western Mindanao State University.
Maging ang Catholic Bishop Conference of the Philippines ay nanawagan sa pamahalaan na ipagpaliban muna ang implementasyon ng HAS upang mabigyan ito ng sapat na pagaaral.
Sa ilalim ng HAS ay pedeng maaresto ang sinuman pinaghihinalaang terorista. At maging ang wiretapping ay pedeng gawin ng pamahalaan sa mga target nito. Pedeng basahin ng sikreto ang mga probadong e-mail, cell phone calls at text messages ng halos 45 milyong Pinoy na may mobile phones.
Ngunit sinigurado naman ng pamahalaan na hindi maabuso ang HAS at may proseso umano ito upang maisakatuparan ang anumang operasyon kontra terorismo. Hindi rin sapat ang teknolohiya ng pamahalaan o mga gamit nito sa pagespiya sa mga terro target. (Mindanao Examiner)
Jul 12 2007
Fear Grips Militant Groups As Manila Prepares To Impose Anti-Terror Law
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 12 Jul) — Human rights advocate, Karapatan, urged the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) to put pressure on the government to stop implementing the Human Security Act of 2007, or the Anti-Terrorism Law.Even a group of lawyers calling itself the Union of People’s Lawyers in Mindanao (UPLM) questioned and bring the matter before the Supreme Court (SC). “UPLM and other civil libertarians will question the HSA before the SC,” said Beberly Musni, Karapatan’s regional head.Musni said the HSA is another attempt of GMA and her allies of human rights violators to perpetuate state terror after her Presidential Proclamation 1017, Eexecutive Order 464 and CPR (Calibrated Preemptive Response) were thrashed by the Supreme Court for being unconstitutional.“The Philippine Constitution expresses the ultimate well being envisioned by the Filipinos for the Filipinos,” said Musni.Musni said HSA attacks humans well being by legitimizing warrant less arrests in indefinite detention, house arrests, restriction of travel, wiretapping, electronic surveillance, seizure of deposits in proscription of people’s organizations.Musni said the UPLM has challenged the IBP and other lawyers’ groups to standby and defend the bill of rights. Karapatan earlier praised the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) for its stand on the Human Security Act of 2007.The CBCP has urged the government to review the Anti-Terrorism Law, citing apprehension among lawyers and other sectors. The militant group and the CBCP even condemned the soon-to-be-implemented Act as “even worse than PP1017, CPR and EO464” accordning to Musni “HAS is an attack of the constitutional guarantee and equal protection of the laws,” said Musni.The opposition said the law could be abused and worst used against President Gloria Arroyo’s political opponents. Arroyo said the law will not be used against the public and legislators, specifically members of the opposition and civil society, who air their views in the spirit of democracy.She said the HSA has enough built-in safeguards against violations of human rights such as warrant-less arrests, eavesdropping and wiretapping, illegal sequestration of properties and tracing of assets.In enforcing the law, law enforcers should follow specific rules on the conduct on its enforcement by first securing a permit from the «assigned and designated» Court of Appeals officer, as well as an authorization by the Anti-Terrorism Council (ATC) before they conduct surveillance on a suspected terrorist or terrorists.Government spokesman have repeatedly appealed to the public to read and assimilate the provisions of the law so as not be carried away by doomsday warnings on perceived dangers of the anti-terror statute.
The HSA’s intent is to safeguard the security of the people, the government and the communities as a whole so that way of life of the people will be protected. (With a report from Ben Balce)
Jul 09 2007
Human Rights Group Hails Catholic Bishops Stand On RP Anti-Terror Law
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 10 Jul) – A human rights group on Tuesday praised the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) after it called for a review of the Human Security Act (HSA) of 2007, or the anti-terrorism law, citing apprehension among lawyers and other sectors.The militant group and the CBCP even condemned the soon-to-be-implemented Act as “even worse than PP1017, CPR and EO464.” “We welcome the timely objection of the CBCP to the HSA implementation on July 15,” said Karapatan regional head Beberly Musni.The CBCP expressed concern over the “morality dimension” of the law which is set for implementation on July 15. Earlier, the militants urged the CBCP to issue statements condemning the implementation of the said Anti-Terror law. “We hope the other faiths and sectors will follow suit,” said Musni adding people should expressed on the widest and strongest condemnation to the HSA.Musni said, like the opposition of the multi-sectors on Charter Change will compel the GMA regime to abandon the HSA.“This is like impact on the peoples’ freedom of expression and peaceful assembly and in right to liberty and privacy,” she said. Last year, the Supreme Court declared Executive Order 464 and Presidential Proclamation1017 as “unconstitutional and partly unconstitutional.” “Our outrage over the attempted charter change should be again being expressed on the HSA,” said Musni. Musni also urged the Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro, headed by Archbishop Antonio Ledesma, to support the CBCP stand. President Gloria Arroyo said the HSA will take effect on July 15.“The new law could be used to abuse the rights of government critics,” said Musni. Musni claimed that it is ironic that instead of making the people feel secure, the law would most likely cause chaos and insecurity.The CBCP called for the suspension of the implementation of HSA. «Since we, as pastors, have to look more into the morality of this law and make a pronouncement in that level,” said in a CBCP’s statement however, reiterated their pursuit for peace as well as condemnation of terrorist acts.On Monday, acting Defense Secy. Norberto Gonzales maintained that the public has no reason to fear the HAS. «If you are not planning anything illegal then the law is for the protection of human rights and not for its (human rights) violation,» he said.Arroyo was in Cagayan de Oro City on Monday where she spoke at the Mindanao Peace and Security Summit.Cagayan de Oro Mayor Constantino Jaraula said the country needs the new law to address the threat of terrorism.Gonzales said the government is seriously considering tagging the Communist Party of the Philippines and its armed wing, the New People’s Army as terrorist organizations. The United States and European Union also listed the CPP and NPA as foreign terrorist organizations on Manila’s prodding.Arroyo initiated the summit through the National Security Council (NSC) and was attended by multi-sector groups in Mindanao, local government officials, the Philippine National Police (PNP), the Armed Forces of Philippines (AFP), ulamas, priests and even representatives of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), members of the academe and the President’s Cabinet who hold positions in the security cluster committee.Arroyo has defined the government’s target in the next three years, which is for the AFP to give strategic defeat to insurgency and other rebel groups, modernize the military, advance the protection of human rights, a sustainable peace in Mindanao and expand alliances for regional and global security.She also signed Executive Order 546, stating the important role of local officials in preparing internal security plans in their localities and the making of PNP as co-equal partner in the effort of combating insurgencies and terrorism in the country.
Peace initiatives and development are also starting to pour in with the optimism of foreign donors supportive of the government peace initiatives in Mindanao. (With a report from Ben Balce)
Jul 08 2007
All Set For Anti-Terror Summit In Southern Philippines
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 09 Jul) – Security is tight Monday in Cagayan de Oro City where President Gloria Arroyo is to speak on an anti-terrorism summit.Arroyo would also meet with her Cabinet security cluster in the first leg of public consultations on the Human Security Act (HSA) which is set to take effect on July 15.Senior Supt. Aurelio Trampe Jr., chief of the local police force, said he placed the entire city on heightened security alert because of the summit at the Pryce Plaza here. “Additional personnel will be deployed in crowded places in the entire city,” said Trampe. “We provided 2nd and 3rd layer security to President Arroyo today.”The summit is expected to draw leaders and experts in the security field from the government, business, religious and the academe, according to Trampe. But militant groups and political activists have threatened to stage mass actions to protest the anti-terrorism law.They said the HAS would be used by the government to silence progressive groups and politicians opposed to Arroyo’s rule. Beverly Musni, head of the human rights group, Karapatan, said militants and activists would immediately be arrested once the HSA took effect.But Norberto Gonzales, National Security Adviser and acting Defense chief, said the HSA had enough safeguards to prevent its abuse.“There is nothing to fear really. The law is there to protect the public, not to harm them,” he said, adding people must commit a terrorist act before they can be arrested.Gonzales, who is also the Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas (PDSP) consultant, also said the anti-terror law is all set for implementation but admitted that its organizational structure is still being finalized.“We’ve already complied with most of the requirements but I’m not sure how complete our organization is because we have to identify members of the office that would implement it,” he said.Trampe said they expect militant groups to hold protest actions but this would not hinder the consultation. “We are prepared with our civil disturbance management team in case there will be street rallies,” Trampe said.City Mayor Constantino Jaraula said Arroyo would arrive later in the day.
According to a government handout, the summit aims to identify problems and difficulties faced in fighting terrorists from the perspectives of the stakeholders and to agree on an action agenda to strengthen local mechanisms for counter-terrorism. (Ben Balce)
Jul 05 2007
RP Anti-Terror Law, Nothing To Fear!
MANILA (Mindanao Examiner / 05 Jul) – Filipino defense and military officials on Thursday allayed fears that the anti-terrorism law will be used to spy on journalists who are critical of the Arroyo government.Defense Undersecretary Ricardo Blancaflor assured the rights not only of the journalists, but every law abiding citizens. Journalists groups expressed alarm after justice officials said the law, which will take effect July 15, can be used to tap into phones of journalists who are suspected of aiding a terrorist.Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Hermogenes Esperon Jr. said there is enough protection for everybody under the anti-terrorism law or the Human Security Act of 2007.He said the target of the law is the terror groups, such as the Abu Sayyaf or the New People’s Army and not the media.»Well if it’s called for, but no, this is not wiretapping of the media, but wiretapping of probable terror suspects,» Esperon said. «The anti-terrorism law is not about wiretapping, it is about neutralizing would be terrorists and that should be for the good of all of us.»
Human rights groups are opposing the implementation of the law, saying, it threatens the basic rights of citizens and could be used by the government to spy on innocent victims for political gains. (Juley Reyes)
Jul 04 2007
Controversial Anti-Terror Law Stirs Confusion, Fear In Philippines
DAVAO CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 05 Jul) – Filipino students and youth organization are joining with other progressive forces calling to scrap the Human Security Act (HSA). They say the law would only set precedent for more anti-student policies.Youth organizations headed by ANAKBAYAN in Southern Mindanao, National Union of Students in the Philippines (NUSP), League of Filipino Students (LFS) and College Editors Guild of the Philippines (CEGP), said the Arroyo administration had not been successful in providing education for the youth, but instead nailed itself on self-serving policies.On February 8, 2007, the Senate passed on a final reading the Anti-Terrorism Act or the Human Security Act of 2007. The HSA is an act that aims to put an end to terrorism and all its forms. «HSA only violates the basic civil right of every Filipino youth,» Arvin Gutang, ANAKBAYAN vice president for Mindanao, said. «It limits the right of every youth to criticize the government and exercise their right to freedom of expression given the provision of the so-called ‘warrantless’ arrests to suspected ‘terrorists’,» he added. Gutang said that in the course of analyzing the HSA, there are certain provisions under the act that are doubtful and can be subject to abuse.According to Karlos Manlupig, LFS Davao City coordinator, «the said law would set a precedent for an undeclared Martial Law by the Arroyo administration. HSA will even aggravate ‘state terrorism’. Given the track record of the Arroyo government, the HSA will give more powers to a regime that continues to violate human rights.»»The youth and students are threatened about the ongoing militarization inside state colleges and universities, private campuses and other educational institutions because of the presence of the military inside the campuses as well as the re-instituted Reserved Officer Training Corps Act and the recent HSA,» said Andrhea Carreon, NUSP-Davao City chapter spokesperson.»We disapprove of this law just as we dislike and criticize the current educational system under the Arroyo regime. Since youth organizations and other progressive groups are now being tagged as ‘terrorists’, we are very susceptible to the threat of this ambiguous law. Therefore, criticizing the government and fighting for civil and democratic rights is tantamount to saying that you are a ‘terrorist’,» Carreon said.Meanwhile, Nisa Opalla, CEGP secretary general, said that aside from HSA and militarization inside campuses, the Arroyo administration is making sure that the voices of the students are curbed and controlled through the new CHED Memorandum Orders that is implemented through the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).»CHED is now trying to manipulate the student governments and councils as well as the student publications by releasing three new CMOs. Two of which involves the student councils and student publications,» Opalla said.»The formation of the National Council of Student Governments in the Philippines and National Council of Campus Journalists in the Philippines are scrupulous acts of the Arroyo government to manipulate the voices of the students,» she said.NCSGP and NCCJP are both formed by the Commission to «establish a working institutional partnership between the CHED-Office of Student Services and Office of Student Affairs and ’empowered’ student governments and campus journalists in various Higher Educational Institutions, private and public, sectarian or non-sectarian, in the country.»The youth groups stressed that both organizations formed by CHED are «puppet» organizations controlled by CHED and the administration of the colleges and universities.They warn the student councils and student publications to be conscious of the said organizations as it would lead to the crippling of the autonomous nature of the student councils and publications from the school administration. «Together with the Tuition and Other Fees Increase (TOFI), these anti-student policies are the various faces of terrorism that the Arroyo administration has put forward to the Filipino youth. The HSA is a grand master plan of the government in silencing the struggling voices of the youth and students.» Opalla stated.The youth organizations are planning to build an alliance to combat the anti-student policies which hinder the youth from getting free and accessible education. It will be composed of secondary and tertiary student councils and publications as well as the various student clubs, youth organizations, religious groups, faculty and parents in Davao City.The said alliance will discuss the possible solutions of the students and youth problems specifically on the issue of education and anti-youth policies.Journalists were also threatening to seek court action and launch a “counter- information” drive on the anto-terrorism law after Justice Secretary Raul Gonzalez allegedly claimed that they can be wiretapped on suspicion of being a terrorists or aiding a terrorist.The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) said it is time the media united to question the «draconian measures» the government is taking through the anti-terror law.»We know the government had banned the media from interviewing coup plotters and spokesmen like Gregorio ‘Ka Roger’ Rosal. That is dismaying and it may lead to a test case,» NUJP national directorate member Inday Varona said in Filipino during an interview on dzXL radio.She said the journalists will likely question the anti-terror law’s violation of their right to protect their news sources.Varona scored Gonzalez in particular for hinting that journalists can be wiretapped if they are suspected to be in contact with terrorists by airing interviews with them.»The media should be ready for a test case that may come its way,» she said.She said the NUJP is planning to mount a media campaign to counter the «information campaign» the government is planning.»If the government will go around with an information drive, we will also go around with our own information drive questioning some of its draconian measures,» she said.Senator Jamby Madrigal has filed Senate Bill No. 23 seeking to repeal R.A. 9372 or the Human Security Act of 2007.She reiterated that the Human Security Act is probably the most dangerous piece of legislation passed by the Philippine Congress. The law is replete with provisions that ravage constitutional guarantees such as freedom of speech, freedom of communication and correspondence, right to travel, as well as an individual’s right to be secure in their things and in their person.»This draconian law should be shredded to pieces and thrown into the garbage bin. The use of violence against civilians under any guise should be opposed. National Security should not be used as an excuse to stifle basic freedoms and constitutionally-guaranteed human rights,» Madrigal said.Madrigal said the anti-terrorism law creates a shadow criminal justice system and can be used as an instrument of greater terror perpetrated by people in power against their critics and political opponents.
«There is no clear definition of who a terrorist is. A person maybe labeled as one by reason solely of his or her political or religious belief and his or her defense thereof. The vagueness of defining a terrorist is not limited to the Philippines. Since 1995, the United Nations has yet to come up with a clear definition of who or what constitutes a terrorist,» she said. (With reports from Leigh Dalugdog and GMANews.TV)
Apr 24 2007
Anti-Terror Seminar, Inilunsad Ng Pulisya
QUEZON CITY (Mindanao Examiner / 24 Apr) – Iniutos kanina ni Philippine National Police (PNP) Chief Director General Oscar Calderon ang pagsasailalim sa lahat ng pulis sa orientation seminar hinggil sa implementasyon ng Anti-Terrorism Law.
Inatasan ni Calderon ang PNP Legal Service upang makipag-ugnayan sa University of the Philippines Law center para sa paglulunsad ng seminar na haharapin ng Commission on Human Rights (CHR) at Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).
Layunin ng hakbang na ito na maiwasan ang anumang pag-abuso sa pagpapatupad ng batas laban sa terorismo o ang Human Security Act of 2007 na magiging epektibo na sa Hulyo ng kasalukuyang taon.
Mas maingat ngayon ang pambansang pulisya lalo pa’t may probisyong nagtatakda ng malaking multa sa malaking pagdakip ng mga suspek sa terorismo.
Ayon naman kay PNP Legal Service head Sr. Supt. Mario San Diego, tututukan ng seminar ang paghimay sa nilalaman ng Anti-Terrorism Law at kung paano ito maayos na maipatutupad.
Samantala, inihayag ni PNP spokesman Chief Superintendent Samuel Pagdilao na wala silang namomonitor na ispesipikong banta ng terorismo sa seguridad ng bansa.
Gayunman, patuloy pa rin ang pag-alerto sa posibleng pagsalakay ng mga bandido sa gitna ng pinakahuling pamumugot ng ulo ng Abu SAyyaf Group (ASG) sa Sulu. (Juley Reyes)
Mar 09 2007
CPP-NPA Yari Sa Anti-Terror Task Force
MANILA (Mindanao Examiner / 09 Mar) – Maiinit ngayon ang mata ng Anti-Terrorism Task Force (ATTF) na maihanay bilang teroristang grupo ang Communist Party of the Philippines at New People’s Army (CPP-NPA) kasunod ng pag-aaral na isasagawa hinggil dito.Sinabi kanina ni Undersecretary Ricardo Blancaflor na ang anumang ilegal na organisasyon ay paglabag na sa Revised Penal Code at isa sa tinutukoy ay ang NPA.Ang isang ordinaryong miyembro ng komunistang grupo na sumusuporta lamang sa kilusan ngunit hindi nakikisangkot sa opensiba ay maaaring makulong ng anim na buwan at apat hanggang anim na taon naman sa mga aktibong sumasabak sa pagsalakay sa militar at sa mga inosenteng sibilyan.Sa ngayon, ang CPP aniya ay maihahanay na lehitimong political organization dahil sa pagbasura sa Anti-Subversive Law.»Well based on their previous actuations, the NPA can be consider now as terrorists,» ani Blancaflor.Ngunit, nilinaw ng opisyal na hindi pa opisyal na maitatakda ang NPA bilang teroristang grupo hanggat hindi pormal na naipatutupad o epektibo ang Human Security Act.Samantala, hindi pa rin maihayag kung anu-anong grupo ang maihahanay bilang mga terorista na dedeterminahin ng Department of Justice (DOJ) at aaprubahan ng Regional Trial Courts (RTCs).
Kabilang na ang Abu Sayyaf Group at Rajah Solaiman Islamic Movement sa mga maituturing na teroristang grupo. (Juley Reyes)
Mar 09 2007
Media, Protektado Sa Anti-Terror Law?
MANILA (Mindanao Examiner / 09 Mar) – Tinitiyak ngayon araw ni Anti-Terror Task Force chief Ricardo Blancaflor na mapoprotektahan ang mga miyembro ng media sa ganap na implementasyon ng Human Security Act of 2007.
Hindi aniya maituturing na kasabwat sa krimen kung nakapanayam lamang ng media ang isang terror suspect o kahit na nabatid nito ang plano hanggang naisakatuparan ang karahasan ngunit hindi isinumbong.
Sa ilalim ng naturang bagong batas, ang accessory sa terorismo ay may katapat na parusang pagkakakulong ng 10 taon hanggang 12 taon.
Paliwanag ni Blancaflor, masasabing kakuntsaba ang media kung nakinabang o tumulong ito sa pagtakas o pagtago sa isang suspek, sinira o inilihim rin ang mga ebidensya ng krimen.
Gayunman, aminado ang opisyal na hindi maliwanag ang probisyon para sa proteksyon ng mga mamamahayag kung kayat hinikayat nito ang media na magsumite ng panukalang probisyon.
Maraming mga miyembro ng media sa bansa at mga lawyers groups at human rights activists ang nag-alsa ng isyu na maaring ma-harass ang mga mamamahayag sa mga iniuulat nito dahil sa mga probisyon ng batas na nagbabawal kapanayamin ang mga tinaguriang terorista. (Juley Reyes)
Mar 09 2007
Anti-Terror Law, Pinaaamyendahan Agad Ng Pamahalaan!
MANILA – Hihirit ang Anti-Terrorism Task Force ng pag-amyenda sa pinagtibay na bagong batas laban sa terorismo bagamat hindi pa ito opisyal na naipatutupad sa bansa.
Partikular na pinababago ni Defense Undersecretary Ricardo Blancaflor, director for Legal, Public Information and Advocacy-Anti Terrorism Task Force, ay ang Section 50 ng Republic Act 93721 o ang Human Security Act 2007 na nagtatakda ng multang P500,000 sa bawat araw na nakapiit ang isang maling suspek sa terorismo.
Katwiran ni Blancaflor, hindi praktikal ang nasabing probisyon lalo pa’t wala namang sapat na pondo ang Philippine National Police o kahit anong ahensya ng gobyerno na aaresto sa suspek. Tinatayang aabot sa P180 milyon ang iluluwal ng isang law enforcement agency bilang multa kung ang nagkulong ng maling terror suspect sa loob ng isang taon.
«Masyadong malaki ito, wala ngang badyet rin ang ating law enforcement agency,» ani Blancaflor.
Sa halip, iminungkahi ng kalihim na na gawing P20,000 kada araw at hindi hihigit ng P2 milyon ang kompensasyon bilang danyos-perwisyo.
Bubuo ang task force ng isang grupong susuri sa Human Security Act at ang mga mailalatag na panukalang pag-amyenda ay agad na ihahain sa pagbubukas ng 14th Congress sa Hulyo.
Gayunman, aminado si Blancaflor na maaaring matagalan pa ang pag-apruba ng anumang pag-amyenda sa anti-terror law dahil na rin sa dadaanan nitong proseso.
Sampung probisyon o paglabag sa ilalim ng Revised Penal Code at presidential decrees ang inihanay bilang bahagi ng depinisyon ng terorismo.
Kabilang rito ay ang articles 122 (piracy in general and mutiny in the high seas), 134 (rebellion or insurrection), 134-a (coup d’etat), 248 (murder), 267 (kidnapping and serious illegal detention), 324 (crimes involving destruction), 5207 (Atomic Energy Regulatory and Liability Act), 6235 (Anti-Hijacking Law), at Presidential Decrees 532 (Anti-Piracy and Anti-Highway Robbery law of 1974) at 1866 (illegal possession of firearms and explosives).
Inaasahang daragsain ng protesta ang balak ni Blancaflor, partikular sa pagbabawas ng danyos kada araw mula P500,000 sa kakapiranggot na P20,000. (Juley Reyes)